Photo by Andrew Neel

Someone shares an article with an unnerving headline on Facebook, but you don’t have the energy to investigate.

A colleague spreads coronavirus misinformation during a meeting, but you decide it’s not worth it to try to correct them.

A relative calls wanting to talk about a complex political issue, but you simply don’t have the desire or capacity to process any more political information.

A lot of us have had experiences like these recently. There’s a name for this phenomenon: epistemic exhaustion.

Epistemic exhaustion is cognitive fatigue caused by trying to figure out or communicate what you believe under challenging…

Barrett taking Oath from Wikimedia Commons

Last week, the Supreme Court heard its first case addressing religious freedom and LGBTQ civil rights with Justice Amy Coney Barrett as a member of the Court. The case, Fulton v. City of Philadelphia, concerns whether Philadelphia can require organizations it partners with to accept same-sex couples as foster parents.

The city of Philadelphia partners with roughly thirty private organizations — both religious and secular — to find foster parents for children in Philadelphia’s foster care system.

In 2018, Philadelphia learned that two of its partner organizations, Catholic Social Services and Bethany Christian Services, had religiously motivated policies against placing…

Reliability is a quality that comes in degrees. For example, a bus that always arrives exactly on time is highly reliable. A bus that often but not always arrives on time is somewhat reliable. A bus that rarely arrives on time is unreliable. People living in areas with public transit commonly discuss which among the less-than-perfectly-reliable modes of transport available are more or less reliable. In doing so, these people show they understand that reliability comes in degrees. They readily acknowledge that some imperfect modes of transport are more reliable than others.

Propagandists prefer their audiences ignore this level of…

Photo by John Tower

In her book Fascism: A Warning, former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright recounts that:

“Mussolini observed that in seeking to accumulate power it is wise to do so in the manner of one plucking a chicken — feather by feather — so each squawk is heard apart from every other and the whole process is kept as muted as possible.”

We often think of dictatorships as arising from wars or coups, but Mussolini’s analogy vividly expresses how nations can slip from liberal democracies to illiberal autocracies through a series of small, incremental changes.

Considering this, the citizens of democracies…

Cropped image taken from

As I write this, a story is spreading through Twitter and Reddit that there are three people in an ED because they drank bleach in responses to Trump’s galling press conference in which he suggested that injecting disinfectant may be a way to treat COVID-19.

I have good news and bad news. The good news: this story is almost certainly fake. The bad news: people are falling for it anyway.

This morning I was scrolling through Facebook. Someone had shared a screenshot of a tweet that read:

“Hi good morning, please don’t drink, bleach or disinfectant of any type.


Many people are suddenly finding themselves with extra unanticipated time at home because of COVID-19. There are lots of valuable ways one could choose to spend the time: cooking, calling loved ones, writing Medium posts about books, etc.

One common suggestion has been to read more. If you find yourself inclined to spend some of your unanticipated time at home reading, I’d like to recommend the following books, from one reader to another.

Lab Girl, by Hope Jahren

Wow guys, I’ve got to admit that I’m starting off this list strong. I just finished Lab Girl and was truly blown away. Lab Girl is one-part…

When I first started studying philosophy, I created a Word document where I could collect quotes from texts I was reading that I found particularly meaningful. Almost a decade later, I’m still adding to that document.

One of the unanticipated joys of keeping such a document is that it lets me look back on my former self and observe what I’ve found particularly meaningful over time. Some of the quotes no longer resonate much with me, while others have deepened in their significance.

Below are five of my favorite quotes from that document, along with explanations of why I like…

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Most of the demagogues in developed countries around the world are sorites authoritarians. We need to understand this form of political erosion if we’re going to be able to stop it.

Here’s an example of a sorites paradox: Take a million grains of sand and put them into a pile. That’s a heap. Remove a single grain of sand and that won’t transform that heap into a non-heap. Remove a single grain of sand one million separate times and you no longer have a heap. But no particular removal of a sand grain appears to constitute the move from there…

Photo by Jiroe on Unsplash

This weekend, there is going to be a “straight pride” parade in Boston. In hosting this event, the parade organizers show us that they don’t understand what LGBTQ Pride is really about.

A few weeks ago, my boyfriend and I were walking through the mall holding hands. Two men walked out of a store about twenty feet in front of us. The men briefly looked in our direction. One man then turned to the other and pretended to grab his hand. The other man pushed him away and they both laughed. The point of the men’s act was clear to…

Photo by Samantha Sophia on Unsplash

Ben Shapiro says Donald Trump’s damage to America is done. He’s wrong.

This past May, a BBC interview went viral in which conservative commentator Ben Shapiro cut his interview short, telling his interviewer, Andrew Neil, that “I’m popular and no one’s heard of you.” Shapiro later walked back his position on Twitter, admitting he wasn’t properly prepared for the interview.

The interview lasted for roughly sixteen minutes, and prior to the juicier moments that made headlines, Neil and Shapiro engaged in some substantive discussion. …

Mark Satta

Attorney and philosophy professor writing about philosophy, law, religion, politics, queerness, and books, among other things. He/him

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